Progent's Exchange Server design and maintenance experts can help your business to plan and execute efficient migrations from out-of-date email environments to the latest Microsoft Exchange platform. Progent's 64-bit migration consultants can help you to assess the business benefits and risks of moving to a 64-bit edition of Exchange Server and can assist you to create and carry out a cost-effective upgrade plan to a 64-bit version of Exchange. Progent's Power BI consultants can show you how to utilize information from Exchange files to create modern visualizations to produce actionable Power BI business analytics reports and dashboards. Progent can also help you to integrate your Exchange-powered email environment with the latest smartphones by providing BYOD integration services that include Apple iPhone and iPad integration and Google Android phone and tablet integration.
Microsoft allows you to create seamless hybrid networks that integrate Microsoft 365 and on-premises Exchange systems. This allows you to have specific Exchange mailboxes located at your corporate datacenter or private cloud and other mailboxes hosted by Microsoft 365. Progent's Microsoft-certified consulting team can help you with any facet of planning, integrating and debugging your hybrid Exchange network. Progent's Exchange consultants can deliver occasional support to help you through stubborn technical issues and also offer extensive project management outsourcing or co-sourcing to ensure your hybrid Microsoft 365 Exchange initiative is carried out on time and within budget. To find out more about Progent's online consulting expertise for integrating Microsoft 365 and on-prem Exchange systems, go to Microsoft 365 integration with on-prem Exchange.
In addition, Progent can offer 24x7 network monitoring to ensure your organization's Microsoft Exchange solution stays operational, and Help Desk Support for rapidly resolving technical issues affecting individual users.
Hampton Roads Metro Area Contact Information:
Progent offers consulting services and onsite technical support throughout the Hampton Roads Area.
Progent locations in
Hampton Roads Metro Area
638 Independence Parkway, Suite 240 Chesapeake, VA 23320 United States
Microsoft Exchange Server 2019 Planning and Configuration Services
Progent can help your organization in any facet of your migration to Exchange Server 2019 such as deploying Windows Server 2019 as a host for Exchange; planning high availability (HA) architecture for an on-premises, cloud-based or hybrid environment; moving mailboxes; designing and implementing Hyper-V; setting up hardware load balancing; configuring DAG groups with MCDB solid-state caching; integrating with Microsoft Teams or Skype for Business 2019 for voicemail services; integration with SharePoint; preparing firewalls; integration with Microsoft 365; and setting up Outlook clients. For details, see Progent's Microsoft Exchange 2019 deployment services.
MS Exchange 2016 Server Support
MS Exchange Server 2016's new architecture permits easier deployment and scale, more efficient use of equipment, and reduced administration cost. Exchange Server 2016 offers tighter connectivity with Microsoft 365 apps, support for Microsoft Windows Server 2016, faster throughput, enhanced data loss protection, and more rapid recovery, more extensive support for iOS and Android smart phones and tablets, comprehensive web-based management, and a more functional web client. Read more about Progent's Microsoft Exchange 2016 Server planning and support.
Exchange 2013 Deployment
Exchange 2013 incorporates major improvements to the functionality of its predecessor Exchange 2010 and delivers important innovations as well as a revamped structure. These enhancements affect key facets of IT like ease of administration, availability, security and compliance, cost of ownership, teamwork, scalability, throughput, cross-version interoperability, and the user experience. Progent's Microsoft-certified Exchange Server 2013 consulting experts can assist your organization to understand the business benefits of upgrading to Microsoft Exchange 2013, create an efficient validation and deployment strategy, and train your IT team to maintain your Exchange 2013 solution. Progent can also provide affordable online consulting and management services for Microsoft Exchange 2013. Read more concerning Progent's MS Exchange 2013 Server help.
MS Exchange Server 2010 introduced breakthrough technology for fault-tolerant, protected, unified messaging. Relative to Exchange 2007 or Exchange 2003, MS Exchange 2010 is less expensive to deploy and maintain, simpler to manage and expand, richer in capabilities, faster, less subject to system failure, more complete in its services for mobile users, and better equipped to guard sensitive data and defend against hacker attacks. Find out more about Progent's Exchange 2010 consulting services.
Exchange 2007 Help
MS Exchange 2007 is designed to meet the demands for security, anywhere connectivity, efficiency, and dependability. MS Exchange 2007 offers built-in fault tolerance that enables world-class availability to keep your messaging environment up and running, defend against spam and malicious email, and help your organization to adhere to regulatory requirements. Learn more details concerning Progent's Exchange Server 2007 consulting services.
Microsoft Exchange 2003 Server Consulting
MS Exchange 2003 offers a dependable, scalable, and manageable infrastructure with 24×7 messaging and group support as well as low licensing cost. MS Exchange 2003 continues to be popular due to the fact that it supports a broad range of collaborative activities, including scheduling capabilities, chat groups, and team folders, and in addition allows access to information across geographic, logical, and technology boundaries with features like IM, low latency communication, and video conferencing. Though Microsoft no longer provides support for this older platform, Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 remains among the most popular releases of Microsoft's Exchange family. Progent can assist your company to maintain your current Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 solution or migrate to the latest version of Exchange Server. Find out more details about Progent's MS Exchange 2003 support services.
Microsoft Exchange 2000 Support
In contrast to MS Exchange 5.5, which uses its built-in directory, MS Exchange 2000 uses Active Directory, providing a simplified administration and security model. Microsoft has ended support for this venerable product and it is long past time to upgrade. Progent's veteran messaging professionals offer decades of background working with Exchange Server 2K and can help your company to migrate affordably to a more advanced incarnation of this popular messaging solution. Find out additional details concerning Progent's Exchange 2000 consulting.
Microsoft Exchange Server 2016 Migration Consulting Services
Progent's experts can help you with all phases of your Exchange 2016 migration such as coexistence, testing, moving mailboxes, decommissioning and training. Progent's Exchange consultants can assist you to assess the business benefits of adopting Exchange Server 2016, plan and implement an efficient migration, and provide as-needed troubleshooting. Progent can help you to create an Exchange Server 2016 ecosystem that utilizes local and/or cloud-based resources. Learn more details about how Progent's Exchange 2016 migration planning and support expertise can assist you to upgrade cost-effectively from your current Exchange environment to Microsoft Exchange 2016.
Exchange 2013 Upgrade Support Services
Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 delivers important improvements its predecessor Microsoft Exchange 2010 Server and offers powerful new features plus a simpler design. Progent can assist you to migrate to Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 utilizing as much as feasible of your current resources. Progent's experts can also help you to integrate Exchange Server 2013 with Lync 2013, SharePoint, and Office or Microsoft 365 for enhanced collaboration and enterprise search features. Learn how Progent's Microsoft Exchange 2013 upgrade support services can ensure that you upgrade smoothly to Microsoft Exchange 2013 for on-premises, cloud, or mixed deployments.
Exchange 2010 Migration Services
Progent can provide expert support for each step of your Microsoft Exchange 2010 upgrade with services that include end-to-end project management, site prep, project planning, specification of all new software and equipment required, suggested sourcing, pilot testing at client site or at Progent's test lab, managing temporary coexistence of Exchange 2010 and Exchange 2003 or 2007, deployment the production system, deactivating the old system, and webinar training for customer's support group and users. Find out more about ways that Progent's Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Migration Services can help you to move economically and efficiently from your older Exchange Server environment to MS Exchange Server 2010
Spam Filtering, Data Loss Protection plus Email Content Filtering and Cloud-based Email Encryption ProSight Email Guard is Progent's spam and virus filtering, data loss protection and email encryption solution that incorporates the technology of leading data security vendors to provide web-based control and world-class protection for your email traffic. The powerful architecture of Email Guard combines a Cloud Protection Layer with a local gateway appliance to provide complete defense against spam, viruses, Denial of Service Attacks, Directory Harvest Attacks (DHAs), and other email-based threats. ProSight Email Guard's cloud filter acts as a first line of defense and keeps most unwanted email from reaching your security perimeter. This decreases your exposure to inbound threats and saves system bandwidth and storage space. Email Guard's on-premises security gateway appliance adds a further layer of analysis for inbound email. For outbound email, the local security gateway provides AV and anti-spam filtering, policy-based Data Loss Prevention, and email encryption. The local security gateway can also assist Microsoft Exchange Server to monitor and protect internal email that originates and ends inside your security perimeter. Learn more about Progent's ProSight Email Guard Spam Filtering, Virus Defense, Content Filtering and Data Leakage Prevention.
Planning and Deployment Support for Microsoft Teams and Skype for Business
Progent's Microsoft Teams experts and Skype for Business consultants offer online and onsite expertise for companies of any size to evaluate the benefits of upgrading to Microsoft Teams or Skype for Business from any release of Lync Server or Microsoft Office Communications Server. Progent can help your business to plan an on-premises, cloud-based or hybrid topology; integrate Microsoft Teams or Skype for Business with SQL Server, Exchange, SharePoint and Microsoft 365; set up high-availability mechanisms; connect Microsoft Teams or Skype for Business with your PSTN gateway; and integrate other communication platforms such as Cisco UC and Cisco Video Interop Server (VIS). Progent's certified information security consultants can assist you design and verify a security environment for your Microsoft Teams or Skype for Business deployment that meets regulatory requirements.
Contact Progent for Microsoft Exchange Server Consulting Services
If your Virginia company is looking for an Exchange Server support professional, call Progent at 800-993-9400 or go to Contact Progent.
Progent can help your business in all facets of your migration to Microsoft Exchange Server 2016 such as designing high availability (HA) architecture for a local, cloud-based or hybrid environment; server and CAL licensing requirements for Exchange and Windows Server 2012 R2+; migrating mailboxes; Windows Hyper-V strategy; specifying mass storage requirements for your virtual machines, databases and log files; setting up hardware load balancing (HLB) for fault-tolerant CAS services; designing, setting up and validating Exchange and Windows Servers and Database Availability Groups (DAGs); integration with SharePoint; preparing your firewall; resolving SSL issues; performing client integration with Office desktop or Microsoft 365; and configuring Outlook on the web.
Fortinet next-generation firewalls (NGFWs) are leaders in offering top performance for encrypted data inspection. Progent's Fortinet firewall consultants can assist your business to integrate your Fortinet FortiGate firewalls to protect all your IT resources at the enterprise perimeter, within the data center core, at branches, and at the cloud edge.
Progent's ProSight Virtual Hosting service provides comprehensive hosting of a small or mid-size organization's production servers in a solution that gives the highest level of availability and expandability and is in addition easy to transfer to another host. ProSight Virtual Hosting and management services are based upon mature virtualization platforms that enable small companies with multi- platform IT systems to economize dramatically on the expense of capital investments, system maintenance, and IT management while benefiting from world-class fault tolerance and an unmatched level of vendor independence.
Progent offers cost-effective online and onsite support to assist companies of any size to move any portion of their critical network resources to Google Cloud Platform (GCP). This can save management hassle and hardware expense and enable the use of Google's cutting edge AI and machine learning technology. Progent can assist you with every phase of Google Cloud Platform integration including requirements analysis, preparedness evaluation, system design and review, testing, configuration, centralized administration, performance tuning, software license management, disaster recovery solutions, and security strategies.
Progent's Microsoft-certified database application developers offer small and midsize businesses online support for popular RDBMS platforms including MS SQL Server, Oracle, MySQL, and Office Access. Consulting support offered by Progent include software installation and configuration, application design and coding, administration support, replication solutions, storage management, tuning, migration, security and compliance, backup and recovery options, troubleshooting, and webinar training.
Progent's ProSight Email Guard uses the services and infrastructure of leading information security vendors to provide centralized management and world-class protection for all your email traffic. The powerful structure of Progent's Email Guard managed service integrates cloud-based filtering with an on-premises security gateway appliance to provide advanced protection against spam, viruses, Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks, Directory Harvest Attacks, and other email-based malware. Email Guard's Cloud Protection Layer serves as a preliminary barricade and blocks the vast majority of unwanted email from making it to your network firewall. This reduces your vulnerability to inbound attacks and saves system bandwidth and storage. Email Guard's onsite gateway device provides a further layer of inspection for inbound email. For outbound email, the local security gateway provides anti-virus and anti-spam filtering, protection against data leaks, and encryption. The onsite gateway can also assist Exchange Server to monitor and protect internal email that stays within your corporate firewall.
VMware's NSX network virtualization platform allows you to create entire networks in software. NSX allows virtual networks to be provisioned instantly and administered with a high degree of automation regardless of the physical components used by the underlying network infrastructure. VMware Site Recovery Manager (SRM) allows programmatic recovery, application mobility, and non-intrusive site relocation, failback and re-protect. Site Recovery Manager also permits non-intrusive testing for site recovery, updates and fixes and can generate reports to verify full service restoration, validate Service Level Agreements and demonstrate disaster recovery compliance. When integrated with VMware's NSX network virtualization platform, VMware SRM can rapidly restore the complete virtualized network topology at the recovery datacenter. Progent offers the skills of a VCDX certified VMware NSX consulting expert and VMware Site Recovery Manager integration specialist to assist your organization to plan, configure, test and administer a DR system powered by VMware SRM and VMware NSX.
Progent's certified ISA Server consultants have long backgrounds developing ISA Server-based security installations for information systems with multiple sites, mobile users, and mission-critical eCommerce applications. Progent's ISA Firewall consultants can help your small business in designing and implementing an installation of ISA Server 2000 or ISA 2004 Server that meets your network security requirements without overly restricting your network productivity. Progent's consultants can help you upgrade from Microsoft Proxy Server from Microsoft ISA 2000 to ISA 2006 Enterprise Edition Server or Microsoft ISA 2006 Standard Edition Server.
Chesapeake Virginia Exchange Server 2013 Computer Consultancy Group
Progent offers clients the services of engineers who have been awarded some of the computer industry's most prized credentials. Progent believes that clients deserve to be sure that their IT support providers have formal testing plus broad practical backgrounds so that Progent's clients can use Progent's service with confidence. Often, vendor certifications like the CCIE brings priority for significantly superior vendor support than is offered to non-certified consultants, allowing Progent to deliver clients a better class of IT support. In other cases, recognized credentials such as CISSP or ISSEP for IT security can aid enterprise clients to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements by engaging the services of accredited IT experts.
Altaro VM Backup software from Hornetsecurity provides small organizations a reliable and budget-friendly solution for backing up and recovering Hyper-V and VMware-based virtual machines. Altaro VM Backup can be deployed in on-premises, remote, multi-site, and cloud-hosted environments and also enables cost-effective backup to Azure storage. Altaro VM Backup defends against ransomware by leveraging Immutable Cloud Storage. This produces tamper-proof backup data that cannot be erased or modified by anyone including root users. Progent is a certified Hornetsecurity/Altaro partner and can provide a wide array of remote or on-premises services to help you to design, deploy, optimize and troubleshoot a comprehensive backup and disaster recovery system based on Altaro VM Backup. With ProSight DPS Altaro VM Backup, Progent delivers a fully managed backup/recovery service powered by on Altaro VM Backup technology.
Configuration Manager automates software deployment at scale, streamlines compliance settings management, keeps track of network assets, guards against company data leakage, performs network health monitoring, enables secure self service, and offers a common point of control for managing mixed-OS networks based on on-premises, cloud-centric, or hybrid deployment topologies. Progent's Microsoft-certified SCCM consultants and Azure cloud specialists can help you with any aspect of designing, implementing, using and troubleshooting a System Center Configuration Manager solution for local, cloud, or hybrid environments.
Progent's Windows 11 experts can provide an array of services for Windows 11 such as cloud integration, mobile device management, teleworker access, security and compliance, automated provisioning, and Help Desk services.
Microsoft Exchange 2016 Information Technology Consulting Company South Hampton Roads
Progent's team of Microsoft and Cisco Certified experts average more than ten years of hands-on industry experience, at the front lines of IT support, executing a broad range of IT tasks for an extensive mix of businesses. Each Progent consultant shares a proven set of personal best practices which are combined into company-wide best practices training that Progent teaches its support team. This guarantees that you get not just world-class technical help, but also a consultant with proven approaches for applying computer knowledge to resolve real-world IT problems rapidly.
Progent's Duo managed services incorporate Cisco's Duo technology to defend against password theft through the use of two-factor authentication. Duo supports single-tap identity verification with Apple iOS, Android, and other out-of-band devices.
Progent's certified consultants can provide offsite and on-premises consulting services to help you to manage, maintain, and repair PCs based on Microsoft Windows 7 and can also provide assistance with migrating to Windows 8.1 or Windows 10 from Windows 7. Progent offers expertise with change management, data and identity protection, backup and restore, online connectivity, smartphone and tablet integration, wireless network design, and 24x7 system monitoring.
Progent's Windows 11 consulting experts can provide a range of services for Windows 11 such as cloud solutions, mobile management, at-home workforce connectivity, data and identity security, streamlined provisioning, and Help Desk support services.
Microsoft 365 Exchange Online lets you utilize cloud-based virtual machines, mailboxes and other Exchange components to lower hardware costs and management hassle. You can use Microsoft 365 Exchange Online to host all your Exchange mailboxes, or you can integrate a hybrid solution that incorporates on-premises and cloud-resident mailboxes. Progent's Microsoft-certified consultants can provide budget-friendly online support to help your small businesses to assess the potential advantages of Exchange Online, design a network topology that aligns with your business needs and budget, carry out a non-disruptive migration from your current Exchange system to one that incorporates Microsoft 365 Exchange Online, train your management team and end users, and deliver as-needed consulting and technical support.
Progent can assist small companies to move any part of their computing infrastructure to the Microsoft Azure cloud. This can streamline IT management and lower hardware expense. Azure includes a wealth of public cloud services and Progent can help you to understand the advantages and limitations of various cloud computing architectures supported by Azure. Progent can show you how to administer cloud-resident or hybrid cloud and on-premises applications and resources and ensure you sidestep the common errors small organizations make when moving to a public cloud. Progent can assist you to configure VMs on Azure Virtual Machines, utilize cloud storage with Azure Storage, handle user identity with Azure Active Directory, and build backup-and-recovery services with Azure Backup. Progent can also help you to configure firewalls and VPN connections and also to integrate iPhones and iPads and Google Android smartphones and tablets.
For medium-size companies who need IT consulting services, Progent can deliver a variety of options such as on-site help, on-line assistance, off-site Help Desk, round-the-clock support with automatic system monitoring, emergency staffing, site relocation support, application programming, and professional consulting. For medium-size businesses in California or other regions serviced by Progent's onsite consultants, Progent provides expert on-premises help for fixing technical issues rapidly and economically.
VMware's market leading Site Recovery Manager is a component of VMware vCenter that allows you to specify, automate and verify a consistent runbook for recovering applications and services rapidly following a breakdown. SRM provides centrally managed and automated disaster recovery, application mobility, and transparent site migration, failback and site re-protect. Site Recovery Manager also enables transparent testing for site recovery, upgrades and patches and can generate reports to verify full service restoration, validate SLAs and prove DR compliance. Progent offers the support of a VCDX certified VMware Site Recovery Manager consulting expert to help you to plan, deploy, test and maintain a disaster recovery solution based on VMware Site Recovery Manager.
Cisco's network security and offsite access technology for small organizations offer a complete range of manageable security products to help safeguard your wired and wireless network infrastructure. Cisco's Virtual Private Network line includes routers, firewalls, intrusion detection systems and Virtual Private Network appliances. Progent's expert staff of consultants includes field-proven specialists with Cisco's CCIE and CCNP qualifications who can assist your company to select Cisco VPN, Cisco RADIUS Security, Cisco Aironet and Meraki wireless access points, and additional Cisco security technologies that fit most closely with your business objectives.
Progent's Juniper-certified network engineers can help you evaluate the business case for adopting Juniper's SRX Series gateways, plan and execute cost-effective deployments, configure equipment to reflect your security strategy, and provide ongoing consulting services to help you monitor, manage, update, and troubleshoot your environment in order to maximize the business value of your SRX gateway solution.
Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 incorporates significant enhancements to the capabilities of Exchange 2010 and delivers important innovations plus a revamped architecture. These improvements favorably impact vital IT areas including ease of administration, availability, security, operational costs, teamwork, extensibility, performance, compatibility, and productivity. Progent's Microsoft-certified Exchange Server 2013 consultants can assist your organization to understand the potential business benefits of migrating to Microsoft Exchange Server 2013, design an efficient test and rollout strategy, and educate your IT staff to maintain your Microsoft Exchange 2013 solution. Progent also offers affordable remote support and management for Microsoft Exchange Server 2013.
Microsoft SQL Server 2016 introduces significant improvements in performance, scale, data security, uptime, BOYD integration, and built-in business intelligence. New features include PolyBase for processing SQL and NoSQ databases simultaneously for data warehousing, Jason support, Always Encrypted mode, Mobile Reports, and seamless management of local and cloud operations and services. Progent's Microsoft-certified consulting team can deliver remote and onsite expertise to help organizations of any size to implement, manage or debug any edition of SQL Server 2016. Progent can also help you to interface SQL Server 2016 with all core Microsoft platforms such as Windows Server, Exchange, SharePoint, Microsoft Dynamics CRM and GP, Skype for Business, and System Center Operations Manager.
Progent's ProSight Network Audits offer a quick and low-cost way for small and mid-size businesses to obtain an unbiased assessment of the health of their IT system. Powered by a selection of the leading remote monitoring and management tools in the industry, and overseen by Progent's world-class team of IT professionals, ProSight Network Audits help you see how well the deployment of your core infrastructure assets conform to best practices. Both the Basic and Advanced options for ProSight Network Audit services are available at a budget-friendly, one-time cost and provide instant benefits like a cleaner and more secure AD environment. Both options also provide the long-term benefits of cutting-edge remote network monitoring and management (RMM) technology. These advantages can include simpler network management, improved compliance with data security standards, higher utilization of network assets, faster problem resolution, more dependable backup and recovery, and increased uptime.
Dynamics GP 2015 R2 introduces a revamped design that enhances cloud readiness, works with the most popular smart phones and tablets, allows single sign-on with Azure Active Directory, and tightens security and compliance. Dynamics 2015 R2 also simplifies reporting, incorporates nine new Workflows, expands the Web Client, and adds more than 100 enhancements to its library of applications. Progent's team of Microsoft-certified and Cisco-certified consultants offer the broad technical skills and experience to address the critical IT and business challenges associated with deploying and managing Microsoft Dynamics GP 2015 R2 and can help your organization to carry out a smooth migration that will maximize the business value of your investment in this powerful platform.
Progent's certified SQL Server developers and database administrators offer remote consulting to help organizations of all sizes to build, manage, and troubleshoot applications based on the Microsoft SQL Server RDBMS platform and Microsoft's .NET architecture. Progent's SQL Server consultants offer support for any phase of the application life cycle in environments that can include small office databases to VLDB applications and data warehousing.
Amazon Marketplace Web Service is a library of APIs that enables Amazon sellers to streamline their business processes by automating key sales activities including listings, orders, shipments, fulfillment, and finances. By leveraging Amazon's vast online ecosystem and automating their sales processes, merchants can broaden their reach, lower their operating costs, improve reaction time to customers, and add to their profits. Progent's Amazon Marketplace Web Service (Amazon MWS) consultants can collaborate with your development team and provide application programming, workflow integration, project management support, and mentoring so you can cut development time and speed up your return on investment.
Microsoft Virtual Server, run on the Microsoft Windows Server 2003 platform and based on software originally developed by Connectix, delivers the performance needed to carry out server consolidation, application migration, and server isolation projects via virtualization techniques in an enterprise-class IT environment with high expandability, manageability, and availability. Microsoft has targeted Virtual Server 2005 at companies wishing to improve ROI in application development and testing, upgrading from legacy mission-critical software, and hardware consolidation. Progent's certified Virtual Server experts can help your IT staff to assess and deploy MS Virtual Server 2005.
Progent offers a wide range of cost-effective consulting and support services to help you to deploy, integrate, troubleshoot, and administer desktop PCs and notebooks based on Microsoft Windows, Apple macOS and OS X, or various editions of Linux. Progent can provide on-premises or online assistance for individual machines or laptops or help your business to design and implement a company-wide rollout of new or revised OS software and business applications. Progent can also provide consultants and technicians to assist your company to prepare for and complete a company move or merger organized to cause the least possible interruption to your business.
Configuration Manager automates application and device provisioning across multiple sites, simplifies security and compliance settings management, keeps track of network assets, protects against corporate data leakage, performs network health reporting, enables safe self service, and delivers a common point of control for managing mixed-OS ecosystems running on-prem, cloud, or hybrid deployment topologies. Progent's Microsoft-certified SCCM consulting team and Microsoft Azure cloud integration experts can assist businesses of any size with any facet of designing, implementing, operating and troubleshooting a SCCM deployment for on-premises, cloud, or hybrid networks.